EU children must now hold a passport of their own when traveling into or within the EU and can no longer travel with their names listed on a parent's or guardian's passport. This requirement is based on EU passport regulations passed in 2009 that provided for a three-year transitional period within which Member States should implement the new requirement. This transitional period ended on June 25, 2012. The approach to the expiration of the transition may differ with each Member State, and some have confirmed they will observe the provisions of the regulation and implement border controls now that the transition period has expired. Carriers may deny boarding if children do not have their own passport.